Dr Alex Farnsworth, from the University of Bristol and co-lead author of the study, said: “Instead of only using the geologic record to model the effect on climate that the asteroid or volcanism might have caused worldwide, we pushed this approach a step forward, adding an ecological dimension to the study to reveal how these climatic fluctuations severely affected ecosystems.”
Dr Philip Mannion, from University College London and another co-author, added: “In this study we add a modelling approach to key geological and climate data that shows the devastating effect of the asteroid impact on global habitats.
“Essentially, it produces a blue screen of death for dinosaurs.”
Although volcanoes release Sun-blocking gases and particles, they also release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.
In the immediate aftermath of an eruption, the Sun-blockers have a larger effect, causing a ‘volcanic winter’.